Red-tailed Hawk

Health Issues Which May Affect This Animal

What Causes This Disease?

Aspergillosis is caused by a fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus. The fungus is present in the environment. In birds that are immunocompromised or stressed, the fungal spores can invade the respiratory tissues and create matts of fungal hyphae.

Where Is The Disease Found?

Aspergillosis is found in soil across most of North America and been associated with mortality events in many areas in both waterfowl and raptors. Aspergillosis had been documented in waterfowl and raptors in Idaho.

Signs of Disease

Birds affected by aspergillosis are usually thin, lethargic and may present with open mouth breathing. Aspergillosis tends to be a chronic disease but can develop quickly depending on the number of spores inhaled. In birds that are chronically infected, either yellow to white thickened areas or thick mats of white to green fungus are present in the lungs and airsacs.

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What Causes This Disease?

Avian influenza is caused by an influenza type A virus. There are 144 different types of avian influenza viruses known. Avian Influenza viruses are categorized into two groups, high pathogenity and low pathogenicity, based on the extent of illness and death they cause in domestic poultry.

Where Is The Disease Found?

Avian influenza is found worldwide including North America. The disease is found in domestic poultry and wild waterfowl, typically in the low pathogenicity forms. Avian Influenza has been found waterfowl and raptors in Idaho.

Signs of Disease

Avian influenza can cause a variety of clinical signs in birds including lack of energy and appetite, decreased egg production, soft-shelled or misshapen eggs, swelling of the head, eyelids, comb, wattles, and hocks, purple discoloration of the wattles, combs, and legs, nasal discharge, coughing, sneezing, lack of coordination, diarrhea, or sudden death without clinical signs. At necropsy, nasal discharge, greenish, watery diarrhea and swelling around the eyes and neck can be seen. In addition, multifocal necrosis of the pancreas and liver, pulmonary congestion and edema, subepicardial hemorrhage, and myocarditis can be seen.

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Red-tailed Hawk

Buteo jamaicensis

IDAPA Classification: Protected Nongame
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